Alonso has taken a completely new system in his Alpine - internal combustion engine [ICE], turbocharger, MGU-H, MGU-K and energy store, as well as a ninth exhaust this year, with only eight allowed for a season.
The decision taken by the team follows moves by Aston Martin and Williams for four-time F1 champion Vettel and British driver Russell.
The power units inside the cars of Vettel and Russell have taken a new ICE, MGU-H and turbocharger.
The grid slots from 18th to 20th for the three drivers will be determined by how they perform in qualifying.
Valtteri Bottas also serves a grid penalty, but only drops five places for taking a new ICE in his Mercedes, his sixth of the campaign.
GPFans is a multi-platform, multi-language brand dedicated to Formula One coverage. We bring you all the ins and outs of the sport, 24/7, everything from up-to-the-minute news and features to the latest viral stories and clips.
We believe that a new generation of exciting, outspoken drivers will make F1 more popular than ever before, and we want to give our users access to as much of their heroes as possible, on and off the track. From Lewis Hamilton to Max Verstappen, Daniel Ricciardo to Sebastian Vettel, we provide in-depth analysis of every every Grand Prix in the season, from Australia to Abu Dhabi.
With Formula One under the new ownership of Liberty Media, how the sport is being covered is evolving, and GPFans will look to be at the heart of this progression into new media, as one of the fastest-growing sites covering the king of motorsports.