At a safety car restart prompted by Valtteri Bottas' retirement, Leclerc had the run on Vettel with fresher tyres, but the German fought back on the back straight, with the aid of DRS.
As the German looked to shut the door on his teammate, their wheels touched, causing a dramatic failure on Leclerc's front right and leaving Vettel with a puncture.
The double DNF was Ferrari's first scoreless race since Singapore 2017, when Vettel and Kimi Raikkonen collided on lap one.
Although skirmishes between Hamilton and Valtteri Bottas have been few and far between, the six-time world champion's time at Mercedes alongside Nico Rosberg was a different story.
And Hamilton expects that Vettel and Leclerc will cut rueful figures, with Mattia Binotto having summoned both to Maranello for a full explanation of the incident.
"Naturally it's never a great one between team-mates," Hamilton said. "I've experienced it first-hand. It's never a great thing for a team.
"I'm sure it wasn't intentional but naturally you've got to… the burden is that there's so many people behind you, it's not just about you.
"When all those people are relying on you to do your job, and something like that happens. It's not a great feeling."
Hamilton was involved in his own incident at Interlagos, tangling with Alexander Albon on the penultimate lap, costing the Red Bull rookie a maiden podium in F1 and seeing his own third-place finish downgraded to seventh by a five-second penalty.
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