Bottas was just 0.006 seconds quicker than his Mercedes team-mate, ending Hamilton's four-year home pole streak in the process.
Hamilton is in search of a record-breaking sixth win in his home race, but will have to keep one eye over his shoulder at the launch, with Charles Leclerc starting third on soft tyres - the Mercedes pair are on mediums.
Sebastian Vettel struggled throughout the sessions and will start down in sixth.
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