Max Verstappen has been given a three-place grid penalty for the Russian Grand Prix having been found to be "predominantly to blame" for his collision with Lewis Hamilton at the Italian Grand Prix.
Midway through the race at Monza, Verstappen attacked Hamilton into the Rettifilio chicane just after the seven-time champion had exited the pit lane following a change of tyres.
Sweeping through the chicane, Verstappen hit the sausage kerb on the apex of the second corner, launching him into the air and landing on top of Hamilton's Mercedes.
But for the halo, it is likely Hamilton would have sustained serious injuries, with Toto Wolff suggesting it had saved the life of the seven-time F1 champion.
After assessing the incident, a stewards' report read: "The Stewards heard from the driver of car 33 (Max Verstappen), the driver of car 44 (Lewis Hamilton) and team representatives, reviewed the video evidence and determined that the driver of Car 33 was predominantly to blame for the collision with Car 44 at Turn 2.
"Car 44 was exiting the pits. Car 33 was on the main straight. At the 50m board before Turn 1, Car 44 was significantly ahead of Car 33. Car 33 braked late and started to move alongside Car 44, although at no point in the sequence does Car 33 get any further forward than just behind the front wheel of Car 44.
"During the hearing the driver of Car 33 asserted that the cause of the incident was the driver of Car 44 opening the steering after Turn 1 and “squeezing” him to the apex of turn 2.
"The driver of Car 44 asserted that the driver of Car 33 attempted to pass very late and should have given up the corner either by backing off sooner, or by turning left behind the kerb.
"The Stewards observed on CCTV footage that the driver of Car 44 was driving an avoiding line, although his position caused Car 33 to go onto the kerb. But further, the Stewards observed that Car 33 was not at all alongside Car 44 until significantly into the entry into Turn 1.
"In the opinion of the Stewards, this manoeuvre was attempted too late for the driver of Car 33 to have “the right to racing room”.
"While Car 44 could have steered further from the kerb to avoid the incident, the Stewards determined that his position was reasonable and therefore find that the driver of Car 33 was predominantly to blame for the incident.
"In coming to the penalty the Stewards emphasise that they have only considered the incident itself and not the consequences thereof."
It was the second incident between the two drivers this season following a collision in the British Grand Prix at Silverstone which resulted in a 150mph, 51g crash for Verstappen.
On that occasion, the stewards handed Hamilton a 10-second penalty for being "predominantly to blame". He went on to win his eighth British GP.