The FIA has released detailed findings into Romain Grosjean's fireball crash in last year's Bahrain Grand Prix and announced a number of measures in its ongoing bid to improve safety.
The investigation, which has taken several weeks, included interviews with those involved, an inspection of the physical evidence, analysis of available video material, as well as examination of the data from the car’s accident data recorder and driver’s ear accelerometers.
It has been determined that "during the opening lap of the Bahrain GP, Romain Grosjean's car was travelling at 241km/h when he lost control on the exit of Turn 3 following contact between his right-rear wheel and Daniil Kvyat’s left-front wheel when attempting to pass from the left to right-hand side of the track.
"The car-to-car contact lifted the rear of Romain Grosjean’s car, forcing it to yaw to the right and placing it on an out-of-control trajectory into the run-off area on the inside of the circuit at the exit of Turn 3.
"Daniil Kvyat also altered trajectory and entered the same run-off area but was able to re-join the track shortly after without further contact.
"Romain Grosjean’s car impacted the triple guardrail barrier behind the run-off area at 192km/h and at an angle of 29 degrees, with an estimated yaw of 22 degrees to the direction of travel and a resultant peak force equivalent to 67g.
"Following the failure of the middle rail of the barrier and significant deformation of the upper and lower rails, the survival cell was able to pierce the barrier and came to rest behind the barrier, constrained by the primary roll structure against the upper rail of the barrier.
"The car suffered extensive damage during the impact including separation of the power train assembly from the survival cell. The fuel tank inspection hatch on the left-hand side of the chassis was dislodged and the engine fuel supply connection was torn from the fuel tank 'safety bladder'; both providing primary paths for the escape of fuel from the tank."
While the investigation has determined that "the driver safety equipment including helmet, HANS and safety harness as well as the survival cell, seat, headrest and Halo frontal cockpit protection performed according to their specifications in protecting the driver’s survival space and managing the forces applied to the driver during the impact", there were other factors.
The report notes that: "The high voltage Energy Recovery System (ERS) battery was significantly damaged, with some parts of the ERS battery assembly remaining with the powertrain and others remaining attached to the survival cell.
"Fire was ignited during the final moments of the barrier impact, starting from the rear of the survival cell and progressing forwards towards the driver as the fire grew.
"The resting position of the survival cell, relative to the upper rail of the barrier significantly restricted the path for driver egress.
"Due to damage to the survival cell and a number of components within the cockpit environment, Romain Grosjean’s left foot was initially trapped as the car came to rest.
"The driver was able to free his foot by withdrawing it from his racing boot leaving the boot in the entrapped position in the car and then moved both the dislodged headrest and steering wheel to egress the car."
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